Between 1974 and and 1975 a
libertarian group, Lotta Anarchica (Anarchist Struggle) was formed by
about 30 young militants - mostly students - in the Noverino-Sarnese area
of the southern region of Campania. The group was mostly
"philosophical-humanistic" but did engage in some basic work in schools
and among the younger layers of the proletariat until it broke up in 1976.
In late 1976, some young
anarchists, together with some ex-members of Lotta Anarchica,
formed the Gruppo Azione Diretta (Direct Action Group) with the aim
of establishing greater theoretical clarity and a stronger base for
militant activity. Though limited to work in schools and social issues, it
did spark interest in anarchist ideas through its propaganda and took on a
greater class-struggle approach. A meeting with a member of the ORA
further stimulated theoretical debate within the group leading, in
mid-1977, to a split with some members who did not share the decision to
create a specific organization founded on theoretical and strategic unity
and collective responsibility. Regular contact was established with the
ORA and a thorough reading of the Organizational Platform was made.
In late 1977, the members
of the Gruppo Azione Diretta formed the Anarchist Communist
Revolutionary Organization (ORCA) on the above basis and the internal
structure of the organization emphasised federalism against democratic
centralism. In 1978, the ORCA was the only anarchist communist specific
organization in the Campania region and was based on the positions of
organizational dualism. It maintained contacts with the FAI and the ORA
and its members were mostly students, precarious workers and unemployed.
In 1978, the ORCA joined
the ORA with the Nocera Inferiore and
Sarno branches, but left in 1981, joining the Italian Anarchist Party (PAI),
which later dissolved into the Rainbow environmentalist coalition in 1989.